Шпаргалка «Экзаменационная» по Английскому языку (Красильникова Л. В.)

Кирилл Николоев сб, 02.04.2016 15:26

History of printing. Printing is a process for reproducing text and image with ink on paper using a printing press. Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

Movable type is the system printing and typography using movable pieces of metal type. Johannes Gutenberg developed European printing technology around 1439. Letterpress is the oldest printing technology invented by Gutenberg in 1440. His invention is based on three things: cast print types, a hand-casting instruments and a printing press.

Ivan Fedorov was one of the fathers if Russian and Ukrainian printing. He was also a master cannon maker and the inventor of multibarreled mortar. Intaglio engraving as a method of making prints was invented in Germany by the 1430s, after the woodcut print. It used by goldsmiths to decorate metalwork, musical instruments and other.

Lithography was invented in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a smooth piece of limestone was used. Chromolithography was the first method for making true multi-color prints and it includes all types of lithography that are printed in color.

Offset printing was invented in 1870s. Offset printing is the major lithographic technologies in which the ink is first transferred from the printing plate onto a flexible intermediate carrier- the blanket- and then onto the substrate.

In 1843, Richard March Hoe invented the rotary printing press, a design much faster than the old flat-bed printing press. The modern screen printing process originated from patents taken out by Samuel Simon in 1907 in England.

After 1960s, was discovered digital printing, for example: xerography, inkjet printing, print on demand, 3D printing. Prepress. There are three parts of printing process: prepress, press, postpress.

Conventional prepress. The prepress step involves the preparation of the copy or information for printing. Typesetting begins with the inputting of text into a computer. Text input is the first stage of typesetting. Text input is followed by word processing. Word processing is followed by text output.

Page layout including the integration of text and image is carried out electronically in the computer, the completed page is output on film or paper. Corrections to the output text are time-consuming and expensive and should therefore be avoided as much as possible.

The combination of text and images to form a page occurs during the page make-up. Sheet assembly is an information-gathering point of central importance for achieving trouble-free results. The following proofs are typical of what is used in conventional prepress:

galley proof; position proof; color proof; press proof Galley proofs are produced for corrections to typesetting products. Position proofs are required to check the completeness and correct location of text and image.

Color proofs are necessary for judging the quality of multicolor products. Press proofing process is produced on the paper and with the ink used for the job. Final step of prepress is plate ready for printing.

Digital prepress. Since the early 1980s, printing and publishing technology has been evolving digital methods for production. Text, images, and layout can be prepared either by the customer, the author, or the agency.

The text data are primarily prepared in Word format. The picture objects of a printed product are usually available as photograph, slide, or reflection copy, and are scanned in, or digitized, for publication.

Graphics constitute the third main element of a printed page. They are generally generated in Freehand, Illustrator, or CorelDraw. Layout programs are software packages allowing for flexible, creative work and for integrating the elements on pages or a sequence of pages.

Modern imposition programs offer virtually any imposition pattern in prepress. Color management is the calibration of all input and output devices. Color management ensures optimum color reproduction. An important reason for using color management today is the correct output result will be achieved at the first attempt.

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